About Nepal

About Nepal

Nepal is one of the richest countries in the world in terms of bio-diversity due to its geographical position and altitude variation. The elevation of the country ranges from 60 metres above sea level to the highest point on earth, Mt. Everest all within a distance of 150 kilometres resulting in climatic conditions from sub-tropical to arctic. This wild variation fosters an incredible variety of ecosystems, including the greatest mountain range on earth which has eight of the world’s fourteen highest mountains, thick tropical jungles teeming with a wealth of wildlife, thundering rivers, forested hills and frozen valleys. Within this spectacular geography is a rich cultural landscape. The country has over forty ethnic groups and sub-groups who speak over 93 languages and dialects. The majority of the population is found in the Kathmandu Valley located in the centre of Nepal and home of three major towns, Kathmandu, Patan and Bhaktapur.


Lying in the heart of the Kathmandu Valley, the modern day capital of Nepal has remained a centre of trade, religion and politics since ancient times. During the 14th Century, the valley was divided into three independent kingdoms; Patan, Bhaktapur and Kathmandu, until the region was invaded and unified to form the nation of Nepal in the late 18th Century. Kathmandu is a treasure trove of mediaeval art, temples and religion, colonial style parks, regal palaces and museums. Standing in the heart of the city are the Royal Palace and Durbar Square, while on the outskirts, two of Nepals’ most distinctive and important stupas stand guard; the Swayambunath Stupa, also known as the “Monkey Temple” and Bodnath Stupa, a centre for the Tibetan culture in Nepal and one of the largest stupas in the world.


Patan, located on the opposite side of the Bagmati River from Kathmandu, once ruled over the whole valley and is now Nepal’s second largest city. You can visit Patan easily on a day trip from Kathmandu – see the traditional Newari houses leaning over narrow old streets, the daily offerings that colour shrines and statues, and the majestic temples and Tibetan monasteries.


Bhaktapur is a charming town located 30 minutes drive northeast of Kathmandu. The entire old town is protected and closed to traffic, making this an ideal place to wander on foot through a rich collection of architecture, mediaeval art, history and everyday life. See the tiny, hand made pots laid out to dry every morning in Potters Square or the local produce market in Taumadhi Tole; exploring Bhaktapur is an unforgettable experience.

Chitwan National Park

The Chitwan region was a favourite spot for game hunting until 1951 and was then declared a national park by the Royal Family in 1973. This is one of the few remaining undisturbed vestiges of the Terai, a low altitude region of grasslands and wetlands, located between the foothills of the Himalayas and the Indian border. This park holds one of the world’s last populations of single-horned Asiatic rhinoceros and is also one of the last refuges of the Bengal tiger.


This small city is spectacular; sitting on the shores of the tranquil Phewa Lake and below some of the worlds tallest and most dramatic mountains. Looking north, you can see the peaks of Dhaulagiri, Manaslu and the Annapurna Range including the remarkable Machapuchare “Fishtail”. Pokhara is a popular place to commence a mountain trek (for the adventurous), as well as a favourite place to just relax, walk and shop.


Nepal covers a span of 147,181 sq. kilometers ranging from altitude of 70 meters to 8,848 meters. Mountains, mid hills, valleys and plains dominate the geography of landlocked Nepal that extends from the Himalayan range in the north to the Indo-Gangetic lowlands in south. Mt. Everest, the highest point of the Himalayas is in Nepal.

Physical features also include green paddy terraces, wind-swept deserts, dense forests and marshy grasslands. The country is well endowed with perennial rivers, lakes and glacial lakes that originate in the Himalayas. Twenty percent of the land in the country is used for agriculture, where 0.49 percent is used for permanent crops, mainly rice.

Climatic conditions of Nepal vary from one place to another in accordance with the geographical features. In the north summers are cool and winters severe, while in south summers are sub tropical and winters mild.

The variety in Nepal’s topography provides home to wildlife like tigers, rhinos, monkeys, bears, yaks, leopards and different species of insects and birds, Nepal is a home to almost 10 percent of the world’s bird species among which 500 species are found in the Kathmandu valley.

The country has managed to preserve some endangered species of Asia in its extensive parks and protected natural habitats. The most abundant natural resource in Nepal is water. Other resources found here are quartz, timber, lignite, copper, cobalt, iron ore and scenic beauty.

Riligion & Festivals


In Nepal, Hinduism and Buddhism are the two main religions. The two have co-existed down the ages and many Hindu temples share the same complex as, Buddhist shrines. Hindu and Buddhist worshippers may regard the same god with different names while performing religious rites.

Nepal has been declared as a secular country by the Parliament on May 18, 2006. Religions like Hindusim Buddhism, Islam, Christianity, and Bon are practiced here. Some of the earliest inhabitants like the Kirats practice their own kind of religion based on ancestor worship and the Tharus practice animism. Over the years, Hinduism and Buddhism have been influenced by these practices which have been modified to form a synthesis of newer beliefs.

For centuries the Nepal remained divided into many principalities. Kirats ruled in the east, the Newars in the Kathmandu Valley, while Gurungs and Magars occupied the mid-west. The Kirats ruled from 300 BC and during their reign, emperor Ashoka arrived from India to build a pillar at Lumbini in memory of Lord Buddha. The Kirats were followed by the Lichchhavis whose descendants today are believed to be the Newars of the Kathmandu Valley. During this period, art thrived in Nepal and many of the beautiful woodcarvings and sculptures that are found in the country belong to this era.With the end of the Lichchhavi dynasty, Malla kings came to power in 1200 AD and they also contributed tremendously to Nepal’s art and culture. However, after almost 600 years of rule, the kings were not united among themselves and during the late 18th century, Prithvi Narayan Shah, King of Gorkha, conquered Kathmandu and united Nepal into one kingdom. Recognizing the threat of the British Raj in India, he dismissed European missionaries from the country and for more than a century, Nepal remained in isolation, during the mid-19th century Jung Bahadur Rana became Nepal’s first prime minister to wield absolute power. He set up an oligarchy and the Shah Kings remained figureheads. The Ranas were overthrown in a democracy movement of the early 1950s.

Festivals in Nepal

Nepal is a land of Festivals. For the Nepalese, festivals are not merely the annual spectacles, but also are a living part of their rich cultural heritage. Festivals effectively bind together the Nepalese people of diverse cultural backgrounds and beliefs into one nation. There are more than 50 major festivals in a year celebrated by Nepalese. Although most of these festivals are religious some have historical significance, while others are seasonal celebrations. Most Nepalese festivals are related to different Hindu and Buddhist gods and goddesses and they are celebrated on such days consecrated for them by religion and tradition. There are also some festivals which are observed in honor of personal relatives such as festival of Matatirtha (for mothers), Gokarna Ausi (for fathers), Gaijatra (for the ones who are passed away). Some festivals are of national significance such as Dashain, a celebration of Goddess
Bhagabati’s victory over evil Mahisashur and Tihar, a celebration of lights dedicated to Goddess Lakshmi, and some are confined to the Katmandu Valley, while still others are celebrated only within one or two villages or cities. The dates of most festivals are fixed by famous astrologers after consulting the lunar calendar in Nepal. Below is the list of most popular festival in Nepal:

For more details information about Festivals in Nepal, see Attraction of Nepal.


Nepali, written in the Devanagari script is the national language. English is widely understood in the urban centers and areas frequented by tourists. Most Nepali people speak more than one language.

People and Culture

The country of Nepal, nestled into the folds of the Himalayas, is a nation representative of a singular flux of races and religions. ‘Melting Pot’ is a term often used to describe the Nepal People, coalesced and united, despite their racial and religious differences.

The people of Nepal or the Nepalese people live scattered throughout the vales and hilly terrains that feature the geography of the country. The Nepalese add up to a population of 22 million approximately. The Nepal people living in different regions have distinctive social customs and life styles that distinguish them from the other ethnic groups.

The Newars, a group of Nepali people, live mainly in the Kathmmandu valley. The Tamangs live on the outskirts of the Kathmandu valley. The Sherpas inhabit the eastern and central regions of Nepal’s mountains. In the vicinity of the Kali Gandaki River in the northern Nepal live the Thakalis people.

The Midlands of Nepal are populated by the Chhetris and Brahmins. The Tharu people dwell in the Terai region. The Limbus, Magars, Jirels, Chepangs, Rais and Sunwars occupy the middle hills. In the lowland Terai and the Dun valley reside the Danwars, Darais, Rajputs, Rajbansis, Dhangars, Majhis, Dhimals and Statars.

Nepal is a harmonious blend of different ethnic groups who are bonded by their fervent loyalty to the institution of Monarchy. The principle religions of the Nepal people are Buddhism and Hinduism. The inhabitants of Nepal mainly communicate in the Nepali language. However, Nepal people use Newari language predominantly in the Kathmandu valley while Tibetan languages are chiefly in use in the mountains.

Nepal culture is marked for its rich diversity. The culture of Nepal includes music, dance, art forms, literature, religion and architecture in varied forms. Nepal has numerous ethnic groups and clans, which have a separate and distinct culture of their own. There are many religions that are practiced in this exotic mountainous country.

Music is an integral part of the cultural heritage of Nepal. Music in all forms is appreciated and adored in the country. Folk music is greatly loved by the Nepali people over modern forms of music. There are influences of Indian and Tibetan music on the music of Nepal.

Another facet of Nepal culture lies in its architecture. There are mainly three types of architectural features that are preferred in Nepal-the pagoda style, the stupa style and the shikhara style. There are several temples, churches, synagogues and Buddhist monasteries in Nepal that are built based on these architectural styles. The culture of Nepal is vividly depicted in these architectural wonders of Nepal.

Apart from music, dance is also a preferred mode of entertainment for the people of Nepal. The religious ceremonies that are celebrated in the country have music and dance as an integral part of their program. Religion is another important part of Nepal’s culture. Hinduism is the primary religion in Nepal, followed by Buddhism and Christianity. There are many festivals, which are celebrated in Nepal and are religious in origin. All these things amalgamated together make a rich cultural heritage of Nepal.

Communication & News

Communication & News

Post office

The Central post Office located near Dharahara Tower, in Sundhara. The Counters on the post office provide stamps, postcards and aerogram. Express Mail Service (EMS) is available in Central post Office. EMS is also available at Thamel, Basantapur and airport postal counters.


Telephone, fax, telex and telegraph services are available at any part of the country. The country Code for Nepal is 977 and the area code for Kathmandu is 1.

E-mail & Internet

Private communications centers and Hotels provide Email and Internet Services almost 24 hrs.


Daily Newspapers and Magazine

There are so many newspapers available in the kingdom of Nepal. Major newspapers are printed in English and Nepali languages. Some newspapers are The Rising Nepal, The Kathmandu post (English Daily) and Gorkhapatra, Kantipur (Nepali Daily). Besides that: a large numbers of International newspapers and magazines are also available in Kathmandu.


Various Radio stations broadcast different music’s and other programs for entertainment. English news bulletins are broadcasted daily morning and evening and Nepali news update in every hour.


Whether & Climate

Nepal is the country of extremes. Weather and climate of Nepal varies with its topography and altitude. It ranges from tropical to arctic. The low-land plains of the Terai can have tropical temperatures and the Himalayas can get to zero temperatures. The Terai region, which lies in the tropical southern part of the country, has a hot and humid climate. The hill, mid-hills and particularly the Kathmandu valleys are pleasant with warm summers and cool winters almost all the year round. The northern mountain region, around an altitude above 3300 m has an alpine climate with a considerably lower temperature in winter as can be expected but the sun can blaze you during the day, even in the mountains.
Monsoon in Nepal is not the typical monsoon of Asia. Rains usually occur during the night-time and early morning mountain views can even be had in this season. The rainy season lasts from July to August. Sub-tropical climate and alpine climate areas are dissected by deep valleys, formed by run-off from the monsoon and snow melt-water. Temperature ranges between maximum of 37 and minimum of 6 degree Celsius in the plains, 28 and 2 degree Celsius in the Kathmandu valley and 16 and 6 degree Celsius in the mountains.


Autumn (Sept-Nov):

This season offers excellent weather and tantalizing mountain views.

Winter (Dec-Feb):

This season is noted for occasional snowfall only at higher elevations. Hence it is ideal for trekking at lower elevations, generally below 3000 meters.

Spring (March-May):

Different varieties of wild flowers, specially the rhododendrons make the hillside above 5000 meters a haunting paradise during this season. It is mildly warm at lower elevations and at higher elevation over 4000 meters the mountain views are excellent and temperature is quite moderate.

Summer (Jan-Aug):

Summer months, continues up to mid September making travel wet and warm. These times are blessed for the keen botanist as the higher valleys and meadows blossom with flowers and lush vegetation.

Security for Visitors

Tourist Police was established in 1979 under the Ministry of Culture, Tourism and Civil Aviation. The special unit has been designated the task of providing security to visitors. The team of Tourist Police consists of officers who can speak and understand English and Hindi. They register complaints, investigate matters, provide protection and safety to tourists. They also try to ensure hassle-free trip for visitors and assist tourists when necessary. There are three units of Tourist Police forces in Kathmandu. While the main office is at the Tourist Service Center in Bhrikuti Mandap(Phone: 4247041, 4247037), the other one at Basantapur(Phone: 4268969).

Here are some tips on how visitors can remain safe:

1.Inform your whereabouts immediately upon arrival to the local police or concerned embassy or consulate.
2. Use the services of government registered travel and trekking agencies only.
3. Stay only at government registered hotels, resorts, guest houses and lodges.
4. Use only those porters who are authorized by your travel agency or hotel.
5. Exchange foreign currency only at authorized places.
6. Carry certified copies of documents and leave the originals and other valuables in the safe deposit box of your hotel.
7. Never leave these items unattended in your room.
8. Do not carry large sums of cash.
9. Never leave your luggage and other valuables unattended at any time, any place.
10. In case of theft or loss contact the nearest police station immediately.
11. Carry travelers’ cheques and limited amount of cash while on tour.

Best Time to Visit Nepal

The best season to visit Nepal is after the monsoons that end in August, and before the winter sets in. The months between September and December are the most preferred ones by the visitors. The rains wash the dusty tracks and the valley looks magnificent with blooming flowers. Post -Monsoon Nepal welcomes you with flower-laden plains and brimming rivers. It is humid in plains at that time but it is still better than the scorching heat of the summers.

It is best to visit hilly areas in summers; that is, the month of May and June. The average temperature at that time hovers around 22-25 Celsius. Nights are a bit chilly in the lower Himalayan region but are comfortable. Mountainous areas are extremely unsafe in the Monsoons. The persistent rains make the hilly tracts slippery. The landslides are very common in the monsoons. Again in the post-monsoon months, you can start for the hill tours.

In winters, most of the hilly areas become out of bound due to very heavy snowfall and avalanches. But if you are fond of snowfall then you can opt for lower Himalayan regions that look beautiful in the blankets of snows.

Nepal Food

Nepal food alludes to the cuisine of Nepal. Nepal cuisine, based on cultural diversity and geographical features, combines motley of food types rather than one type of cuisine.

Nepal food varies from region to region and from one ethnic group to the other. The Terai cuisine is often very similar to the Indian recipes, but there are variations among the Tharu and the other ethnic groups. The Himalayan cuisine, extremely delicious, constitutes chiefly the diet of the Tibetans and also of the ethnic groups inhabiting the northern parts of Nepal.

The Newars celebrate the maximum number of feasts and festivals and are well known for their contribution to the varieties in Nepal recipes. Newar food can be categorized into two broad types – daily foods called Jyona or lunch and Beli or dinner, and Bhoye, which is a food menu, arranged in systematic order.

The two famous foods of Nepal include dhal bhat and momos. ‘Dhal Bhat Tarkari’, which is lentil soup rice and curry constitutes the chief diet of the Nepalese living in the hills. This is eaten twice daily. Dhedo, a type of Tibetan food made of flour, butter, ghee or water, is eaten high up on the mountains due to scarcity of rice.

Nepal food consists of snacks like roti, bread, curried vegetables and milk tea that are eaten in between the daily meals. Some other famous Nepalese foods include Gundrook-Dheedo, Alu Tama, and Chatamari. Tongba and Rakshi are the traditional drinks of Nepal.

Nepal Art

Nepal Art and culture are both chiefly the manifestations of the religious beliefs of the country. The chief feature of Nepal Art has been its delicacy and decor. The Nepal Art is beautifully influenced by the culture of the people and is intertwined with their everyday lives. The two most famous manifestations of the Nepal Art are the sculptures and the paintings. There is very little influence of the modern world in the sphere of Art in Nepal.

The earliest forms of he Nepalese Art are the manuscript illustrations on the palm leaves. The earliest manuscript found dates back to 1015 A.D. by the name of Astasahasrika Prajnaparamita. The wooden boxes used to cover these manuscripts are more often than not much more delicately decorated. The influence of religion on this work of art of Nepal is clear from the way images of gods and goddesses are used to decorate the manuscripts. These Gods belong to both the Hindu as well as the Buddhist religions. Other popular forms of painting are the metal sculptures.

Sculptures are another major genre of art at Nepal. Much of the earlier sculptures are found in the Terai regions of the country. Like the paintings, most of the sculptures are religious in theme. The copper, bronze and stone sculptures belonging to the Lichchhavi period are the most beautiful ones. Woodcarving is another important name among the various art forms in Nepal.

FAQ Nepal

Where is Nepal?

The country Nepal is pronounced as NAY PAHL. It is a land locked mountainous kingdom in southern Asia, located between India and China.

Currently over 26 million people of different races and tribes, living in different regions, wearing different costumes and speaking different languages occupy a total of 147,181 square kilometer (885 km east to west, and 193 km north to south) of this tiny country.

Nepal is a little larger than North Carolina State of America. Nepal is geographically, culturally, and linguistically diverse. The capital of Nepal is ‘Kathmandu’ but many love to call it by the name Catmando or Woodmandu or simply by the name ‘ city of temples’. Nepal is a kingdom of Himalayas, artistic monuments, exotic wildlife, and a unique harmony of diversified cultures. Nepal attracts visitors for casual holidays, tours, and adventure activities including ‘Everest Expedition’. Nepal is also popular for having its land the birth place of Lord Buddha, and birth place of Lord Sita. Agriculture and Tourism are two important revenues that keep this nation exist.

What is Nepal known for?

Nepal is known for Mount Everest, the highest mountain in the world, spectacular natural beauty that can be seen in its land especially hilly regions, known as the birth place of Lord Buddha, and the Hindu Goddess Lord Sita. Also known as the home of Gurkha Warriors. It is also known as a country with abundant Natural Water Sources.

What is the national language of Nepal?

Nepal’s national language is called Nepali. It is written in Devnagri Scrip. There are more than 72 different spoken languages in Nepal.

What’s the common form of greeting in Nepal?

It is called Namaste or Namaskar. You can say the greeting in words as well as do it using a gesture. Join your palms together and bring them close to you chest and about 5-7 inches below your chin. The word Namaste has many meanings such as Hello, How are you? I am gland to see you, nice to meet you, good morning, etc.

What’s the currency of Nepal?

Currency is spelled as Nepalese Rupees or Rupee (Rs) or in short NRS. 100 Paisa equals 1 Rs. Nepali Notes are 1000, 500, 250, 100, 50, 25,10, 5, 2, and 1 rupees.

What are Nepalese people like?

Nepalese are friendly and hospitable by nature. Travelers count Nepalese among the best friends in the world. Nepalese respect Guests as God. And there is a popular Phrase every Nepali knows, it say “Guest equals God”. A part of the reasons why people revisit Nepal is because of the friendliness and warmth of Nepali people.

How much does it cost to get to Nepal?

Depending on which airlines you chose, when and where you buy your air tickets, and how quickly you want to reach Nepal, your cost will differ. Airfare for round trip, economic class, and high stop over.

What climate like in Nepal?

Winter: December-February,
Spring: March-May,
Summer: June-August,
Autumn: September-November.

What can I do in Nepal as a traveler?

So you found this country tiny? Hold your breath and discover what it packs! You can do so much only in Nepal. You can see in our website.

When is the best time to travel in Nepal?

Best time to travel to Nepal is October to November, and February to April.

How safe is traveling to Nepal?

Nepal is place of peaceful.

Is gambling allowed in Nepal? Or do you have Casinos?

Gambling is illegal in Nepal. There are numerous Casinos in the Capital Kathmandu, which are mostly open to Tourists only. Some of the casinos have video games, slot machines, and are open 24 hours.

Is sex legal in Nepal?

Prostitution is illegal in Nepal. No free to operate a business such as opening a brothel.

Is my license valid for driving in Nepal?

International Driving license is valid for driving in Nepal. But due to traffic and road conditions driving in Nepal is not advisable. But if you would like to drive, go for a highway such as from Kathmandu to Pokhara where roads are wider and driving is a sheer pleasure.

What is the Night-Life like in Nepal?

Night life in Nepal is almost dead in comparison to other parts of the world. A few places in Kathmandu and Pokhara can offer you unmatched opportunities. You can have an enjoyable experience in Thamel, Lazimpat and Durbarmarg regions where hundreds of tourist shops, restaurants and bars awaits to your full entertainment and night-life hangouts. Metered Night Cabs are available so can you easily reach your hotels from any restaurants in the city area.

Do I need a visa for Nepal?

Visa is required to enter Nepal for other than Indian Nationals.

Do I need to obtain Permit before trekking in Nepal?

Trekking permit is only required to trek in the restricted areas such as Dolpa, Kanchenjunga. Permit can be obtained easily from the Tourism Department, located at Thamel, Kathmandu. Application can be submitted after your arrive in Nepal. The permit is not required to trek in areas such as Everest, and Annapurna.

Where can I find Maps about Nepal?

You can see Maps of Nepal in this book. and also see map of nepal in our website.

What is there to buy in Nepal to take back home?

There is just too much actually. You will not want to take back home Nepalese arts and crafts, handmade papers, Thangka -Tibetan Paintings, Pashmina, and Khukuri, silver jewelleries, Nepali Cap, Nepali dress, Nepali Carpets, Fashion clothes, garments and accessories and many more …..

How much does a taxi fare cost in Nepal?

From Kathmandu Airport to any part of the City should not cost you more than Rs 300.

Further useful information

Respect local traditions, customs, values and sentiments to help them protect local culture and maintain local pride.

Respect privacy when taking photographs
Respect holy places
Refrain from giving money to children as it encourages begging
Respect for the local etiquette earns you respect
Let the Himalayas change you – Do not change them
Protect the natural environment
Leave the campsite cleaner than you found it
Limit deforestation – make no open fires
Burn dry paper and packets in a safe place
Keep local water clean and avoid using pollutants
Plants should be left to flourish in their natural environment

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